|Major groups||Common Name||Scientific Name|
|Porcupines||Indian crested Porcupine||Hystrix indica Kerr, 1792|
|Squirrels||Northern striped squirrel |
Southern palm squirrel
Western Ghat squirrel
|Funambulus pennanti Wroughton, 1905 |
Funambulus palmarum Linnaeus, 1766
Funambulus tristriatus Waterhouse, 1837
|Gerbils|| Indian gerbil |
|Tatera indica Hardwicke, 1807 |
Meriones hurrianae Jerdon,1867
Gerbillus gleadowi Murray,1886
|Bandicoots||Lesser bandicoot rat |
Larger bandicoot rat
|Bandicota bengalensis Gray, 1835 |
Bandicota indica Bechstein, 1800
|Rats||Brown rat or Norway rat|
The House rat
Soft-furred field rat
Indian bush rat
Short-tailed mole rat
| Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769 |
Rattus rattus Linnaeus, 1758
Rattus brunneusculus Hodgson,1845
Rattus nitidus Hodgson,1845
Rattus wroughtoni Hinton,1919
Millardia meltada Gray, 1837
Golunda ellioti Gray,1837
Nesokia indica Gray,1830
|Mice||House mouse |
Spiny field mouse
|Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 |
Mus booduga Gray, 1837
Mus platythrix Bennett, 1832
If an area is made rat-free due to good management and/or effective control measures, rats from near-by areas will migrate into it. It is therefore more efficient if control campaigns are conducted in several adjacent areas simultaneously. In the case of a village all households should be motivated and organised to control rats at the same time. While control in one household will still benefit the owner, benefits increase as the number of participating neighbours increases.
In the case of stores, large and small, surrounding areas including other stores should also be disinfested. This means that all the store keepers or managers involved should coordinate and synchronise their rodent control activities for maximum effect.
The prime objective of any rodent control campaign should be to create environmental conditions which will discourage or prevent the pests from re-entering an area after its rodent population has been removed by one means or another.(a) Sanitation
Rodents require food and shelter. Therefore it is most important to reduce the availability of these two key factors, which should be central in devising any kind of strategy. In the case of buildings the most effective method of rodent prevention is the improvement of hygiene or sanitation in and around them. Primarily this means sweeping the store and keeping both it and the surrounding area neat and tidy, i.e. free from any objects such as empty containers, idle equipment or discarded building materials, which could provide cover or nesting places for rodents. It also means removing food scraps left over from feeding pets or livestock at the end of the day's work.
Regular disturbance in a place is avoided by rats and mice.
Rats avoid clear spaces. Therefore by keeping a strip of two or more metres around a building clear of vegetation will reduce the chance of rats entering the building.
Branches overhanging the building should be cut off to prevent climbing species to enter from above.
Rats feel uneasy if their 'paths' and 'markings' are removed or cleaned daily by sweeping. They will not feel secure enough to remain in a building and damage packaging in their search for food. If they do, the damage is minimal and immediately noticeable.
Since it is not practical to remove all food from stores and households, it is necessary to restrict access by rats. This is accomplished by proofing buildings or keeping food in -rat proof containers.
Rodent-proofing building materials which they cannot gnaw through should be used. It should be remembered that some rodent species are good climbers and jumpers, and most can squeeze through surprisingly small holes and cracks (young mice need no more than a 0.5 cm wide crack to gain access).
Hard metal strips should be fitted to the bottom edges of all wooden doors and their frames, and vulnerable windows should be protected with tight wire netting screens in hard metal frames. Steel rat guards fitted to drainpipes and other attachments to the building should be at least one metre above ground level. Door hinges and similar fittings should be so placed or protected that rats cannot use them for climbing.
Floors and walls should be kept in good repair. New holes dug by rats should be filled in immediately, with cement reinforced with pieces of crumpled chicken wire. If cement is not immediately available a temporary seal can be made with tightly packed earth between the wire mesh. The important point is that repairs should be carried out as soon as the damage is noticed, which should be within a few hours of it being done if the building is inspected daily.
Although rats are active mainly after dusk, they will move about during day as well when there is no human activity. Therefore doors of stores should stay tightly closed during the day as well, when the store is not in use.
If the building itself cannot be made rat proof, then foods and other valuables should be kept in earthenware containers or metal drums with good lids.
Normally predation will not keep rats and mice at economic population levels. One exception is the keeping of cats. Cats do not directly control rats and mice by feeding on them. It is their presence, which keeps most rats and mice away. A survey conducted in a Myanmar village has clearly shown that households with cats had no rats while those without cats in the same village were visited by rats.(iv) Mechanical Control
The method most commonly used in buildings is trapping. Often local traps are available and in some cultures people are very good at using them. They should be placed where rats move regularly. If placed along a wall, the trap should be perpendicular to it and the treadle with the bait should face the wall.
Sticky or glue traps are another way of catching rats and mice The traps are placed in the same way as other traps, and normally there is no need for bait to attract rats. These traps should be checked daily, but are not regarded as very 'humane'.
Flushing rodents out of their burrows, with smoke or by flooding them with water, can be very effective and suitable in some situations.